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Pelmanism 



J^esson VII 



THE 

PELMAN INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 
New York City 

London Paris Melbourne Delhi 

Durban 



Copyright, 1919, 1926 and 1929 
By The Pelman Institute of America 

PRINTED IN U.S.A. 



LESSON VII 



MEMORY AND THE PRINCIPLES OF 
MENTAL CONNECTION 



CONTENTS page 

Foreword - -- -- -- -5 

I — The Unity of the Mind 5 

II — The Four Stages of Memory 6 

III — Registration — Impression 6 

IV — Retention and the Stream of 
Thought - - - - 9 

Sequence in Events. 
The Mind- Wanderer. 



Connected and Unconnected Facts and Ideas. 

Order and Classification. 

On Arranging Experiences. 

Unifying Knowledge. 

Classification and Knowledge. 

The Need of Definition. 

Marks of the Trained Mind. 

V — The Pelman Principles of Mental 
Connection ------ 25 

The Primary Laws of Association. 
The Laws of Association Illustrated. 
The Application of Analysis. 

VI — Useful Applications of Association 36 

VII— Recall 39 

The Recollection of Isolated Facts. 
An Actress on Memory. 

VIII — So-Called "Systems of Mnemonics" 42 



Legitimate Use of Artificial Aids. 
Recollection in Things Themselves. 

IX — Recognition ------ 46 

X-XI-Don'ts and This Do - - - - 47-48 

XII — Mental Exercises ----- 49 

XIII — Health Exercises - - - - - 54 

XIV — Appendix — Card Memory - 63 



THE PELMAN SYSTEM OF MIND-TRAINING 



LESSON VII 

MEMORY AND THE PRINCIPLES 
OF MENTAL CONNECTION 



FOREWORD 

Perhaps you are one of the many who com- 
plains that you cannot remember, names, dates, 
facts, faces and other things. As a result of the 
lesson on "Knowledge and the Senses," you now 
gather daily a larger amount of material than 
ever before. How are you to handle this in- 
creasing harvest of facts and ideas? This lesson 
gives you the laws of memory and mental con- 
nections. By applying these laws you can util- 
ize your memory powers effectively, and im- 
prove your ability to organize ideas. 

I— THE UNITY OF THE MIND 

In Lesson II, you learned that the mind is a 
unity. For convenience we often refer to the 
various aspects of the mind such as feeling, 
thinking and willing. These three aspects of the 
mind are not distinct separate compartments. 
These mental traits are all closely interrelated. 
For example, in Lesson IV, you learned that in- 
terest (feeling), attention and use are all essen- 



6 



PELMANISM 



tial if one hopes to develop his senses. Again in 
Lesson V, you learned Right Willing results 
from Right Feeling and Right Thinking. Pel- 
manism, recognizing the unity of the mind has 
always insisted that the mind should be trained 
as a whole — an entity. As you proceed in this 
lesson you will recognize that in earlier lessons 
you were also learning how to develop good 
memories. 

^ II— THE FOUR STAGES OF 
MEMORY 

Memory cannot return to you what you have 
never entrusted to it. Impression or registra- 
tion _of materials to be remembered is therefo re 
the first stage in developing good memories. 

Memory cannot return to you what has not 
been retained. Retention is the second factor. 

Retention of material is of no value, unless it 
can be recalled or recollected. Recall, or recol- 
lection is the third stage of memory. 

For some memory material, we need not only 
the ability to recall, but also the ability to recog- 
nize the facts or ideas given back by memory as 
belonging to our past. Recognition is the last 
of the four stages involved in memory. 

Ill— REGISTRATION— IMPRESSION 

Lesson IV, "Knowledge and the Senses," 
showed you the importance of sensory impres- 
sions. To remember everything you experience 



MEMORY 



7 



would be a distinct disadvantage. To forget is 
al most as valuable as t o remember becausetf "3ll 
experie nces were retained yo u would not be able 
to distinguish the important from the irrelevant 



In short, you must select the things you desire 
to remember. Interest aids you to make the se- 
lection. What is your life work? (Review 
Lesson III.) What is your hobby? What are 
your life interests? The answers to these and 
similar questions indicate some of the materials 
you should select to remember. 

Form the habit of attending to the things and 
ideas that pertain to your main life interests. 
To attempt to rem ember qveqrthin n|- me^i^ to 
W eaken your memo ry herayse the hab it of sca t- 
termgjj],terests resul^ retention of little 
or nothing. Your behavior is controlled in part 
by habits, good and bad. Good habits underlie 
good memories, bad habits underlie bad mem- 
ories. To break a bad habit requires the substi- 
tution of a good habit. Develop your interests 
and the habit of selecting things to remember 
which are related to these interests will grow. 

A pproach the innumerable experiences which 
daily assail your senses with the intention to re- 
member the j^ v*f rn ™t ^min^s . Confidence in 
your ability to remember is the greater part of 
t he battle. If^ySiTTn'^aninsurance broker you 
glance through the newspaper. You note every- 
thing related to insurance because your life work 



ideas. 




8 



PELMANISM 



gives you a mental set which enables you to 
grasp this sort of material. Since you do not 
possess a one-track mind, your hobby, radio, di- 
rects your attention to an article which carries the 
news that an excellent broadcasting station you 
have never been able to tune in on, has had its 
wave length and power changed. That evening 
finds you without conscious effort turning the 
dials of your set in an attempt to get the station. 

As you ride in the street car you often find 
yourself reading the advertisements. An anal- 
ysis of the kind of advertisement which attracts 
your attention will indicate that it appeals to the 
basic inborn tendencies common to all mankind. 
The inborn tendencies most often touched are 
hunger, self-preservation of life, love of adorn- 
ment, and the sex instinct. Attention due to the 
appeal of the instincts is called involuntary at- 
tention because such attention is given without 
conscious effort. Attention that requires effort 
and will is known as voluntary attention. One 
of the chief tasks of the school and of all life is 
to make voluntary attention approximate in its 
force involuntary attention. Interest is the 
drive, the dynamic force that causes effort to de- 
sert voluntary attention which in reality then be- 
comes involuntary attention, or what the 
psychologists call derived primary attention. In 
school you may have detested geography but 
now, due to the radio or the epoch-making 
flights of Charles A. Lindbergh, you look for- 



MEMORY 



9 



ward to reading about things geographical with 
joy. Interest has caused attention to be spon- 
taneous and effortless. Such attention insures 
good registration, which comprises the first stage 
in memory. 

IV— RETENTION AND THE 
STREAM OF THOUGHT 

Retention of material depends upon our men- 
tal make-up, the impression, and the way in 
which we take things into our mind. You have 
learned how to get good impressions. How are 
these impressions to be organized? 

Ask yourself this question: "Do my continu- 
ally changing thoughts and feelings follow each 
other at random?" Presuming you are free to 
think the matter out quietly, take a sheet of pa- 
per and jot down as many as you can remember 
of the thoughts of the past hour. It is now, say 
9 p. m. At 8 p. m. you were sending your insur- 
ance money to the Secretary of the Company, 
and, having posted the letter, you returned to 
the reading of the book which was put aside for 
a moment or two in order to remit your premium 
before the days of grace elapsed. You read for 
half-an-hourj then a friend called and you dis- 
cussed politics for ten minutes. After his de- 
parture you were reminded that the basement 
bell did not ring, and you attended to the task of 
repairing it till nine o'clock. 



10 



PELMANISM 



SEQUENCE IN EVENTS 

On analyzing the events of this hour a little 
closely, you realize that there is a definite se- 
quence: thoughts do not come at random, but 
proceed by the law of association. While you 
were reading your book, you came across the 
word "insurance }" you were reminded of the 
pressing importance of dispatching your pre- 
mium before it was too late. Having done this, 
your interest in the book caused you to return to 
it, and for half an hour you were following the 
hero and heroine through their trials and tribu- 
lations. Then there was a break. A friend's 
call and his ardent feelings about certain phases 
of politics transported you from a world of fic- 
tion to a world of fact. You went at the business 
of criticizing your friend's viewpoint hammer 
and tongs for ten minutes. He left, perhaps 
only half convinced} it was only on shaking 
hands with him at the gate that you remembered 
the basement bell. You repaired it. 

Such is the history of your mental hour. All 
its thinkings form a link of associations with one 
inevitable break, that of the friend's visit. Of 
course you could have avoided this if you had 
been so disposed. You could, for instance, have 
seen the word "insurance," and even thought of 
your insurance policy without acting upon the 
thought} and you could have refused to see your 
friend on the plea that you were busy. By,.a.vaul- 
ingjhe ch&aces-of interruptionj you would have 



MEMORY 



11 



secured greater concentration and obtained a 
more complete command over the thoughts con- 
nected with the book. 

THE MIND-WANDERER 

But even a mind that wanders thinks according 
to the laws of association. Let us see how this 
happens. George Copeland, a young man of 
twenty-three, is trying to devise some way of 
spending his evening. His thoughts for about 
ten minutes are revealed by the following words 
which flash through his mind: Palace; Charley } 
Miss Turner; fashions; Wanamaker's; Benson; 
South America; Patagonians; advertising evils; 
Greenwich Village. 

He began by wondering what was the best 
seat he could afford at the Palace; and then 
he wondered if his friend, Charley, could 
go with him; from Charley he immediately 
passed to Charley's fiancee, Miss Turner; and 
from her to fashions, frills and furbelows; then 
he thought of Wanamaker's which gave rise in 
his mind to the notion of his own firm. His next 
thoughts were of the office staff, especially of 
Benson who had robbed the safe, and skipped 
away to South America. That reminded him of 
the Patagonians who were said to be six or seven 
feet high, and he wondered whether a man's 
height could be raised, as the advertisement said. 
Here he paused to meditate on the frauds of ad- 



12 



PELMANISM 



vertisingj and on the way beautiful country out- 
looks were made hideous. He was just thinking 
he would change his lodgings to a better section 
jf the city than Greenwich Village, when Charley 
called unexpectedly. 

Connected Thinking — The worst mind-wan- 
derer in the world has thoughts which are inti- 
mately connected in the way just described, even 
though in a five minutes' reverie he may begin 
with a thought about margarine and finish up 
with a speculation about the planet of Mars. 
The mischief, however, is often serious. A mfm 
who uses his thinking powers in this listless. fash- 
ion becomes unable to fix his attention on any- 
thing for long j his memory develops deplorable 
weaknesses due to inattention; and, as a conse- 
quence, self-confidence decreases in correspond- 
ing ratio. No doubt there are times when we 
should allow the mind to take its own course, or 
permit the lapse in which we find ourselves. 
The mind must not be drilled unceasingly 5 it 
must on occasion "stand at ease," as in the con- 
versation of a social evening. But when business 
or study is before us, and we have a program to 
fill, hour by hour, the more consistently we fol- 
low the demands of attention, the better it is for 
our mental powers generally. In this lesson we 
shall deal with the well known laws of associa- 
tion under the general heading of the Pelman 
Principles of Mental Connection. 



MEMORY 



13 



CONNECTED AND UNCONNECTED 
FACTS AND IDEAS 

If you take a random list of words you find 
it rather difficult to recall them, because they are 
not so grouped as to be an organic whole. Here 
is such a list: dome y a y glass y many y of y white y 
eternity y life y stains y radiance y of y colored y the y 
like. As a mere list of words it seems to convey 
no meaning — but when Shelley used them he 
arranged them thus: 

Life, like a dome of many-colored glass, 
Stains the white radiance of Eternity. 1 

What a difference! 

The introduction of method by means of 
grammatical arrangement, and the infusion of 
exalted feeling, turns an apparently meaningless 
group of words into poetry of the highest order. 
We shall proceed, first of all, to point the intel- 
lectual moral. There may be in your mind 
much that is excellent in itself, but it fails to find 
expression because the material is not arranged. 
Facts and ideas are scattered round in barren iso- 
lation which should be gathered into fertile 
groups. 

Now the object of this lesson is to provide a 
method whereby you will be able not only to 
think in a concentrated manner, thus avoiding 
the waste of mind-wandering, but to reap the 
harvest of your mental efforts. Such a result is 



1 Adonais. 



14 



PELMANISM 



worth working for, and if you are at all keen 
about it you will easily master the elementary 
technique of subsequent pages. 

Read the following fifteen words, once only, 
and see how many you can write down in the 
order given. 

Town Lens 
Camera Continent 
Cat Glass 
Island Man 
Window Africa 
Fur House 
Photographer Animal 
Warm 

In all probability your efforts will not be a 
conspicuous success. Let us arrange them, how- 
ever, in a connected order; then, after reading 
through the list, once only, try to write them 
down from memory. 



Town 

House 

Window 

Glass 

Lens 

Camera 

Photographer 

Man 



Animal 

Cat 

Fur 

Warm 

Africa 

Continent 

Island 



This time your success will astonish you. 
Each idea in the rearranged series of fifteen 
words has an obvious association with the idea 



MEMORY 



15 



immediately preceding it, and with the idea 
immediately following it. The first list shows 
the difficulty of remembering unconnected 
ideas j the second list exhibits the ease of recol- 
lection when a natural association exists. Our 
object, however, is not merely to increase mem- 
ory^power, but to assist you in the development 
of alogical and creative mind. It wURbe a great 
advantage, no doubt, to arrange groups of data 
in such a related manner as to be able to recall 
them with ease; and we shall show you how this 
is done. But it will be a still greater advantage 
to be able to focus your attention on the true re- 
lationships of a subject, and to arrive at your 
own conclusions, unaided. 

ORDER AND CLASSIFICATION 

The superiority of the second list of words 
lies in its g^^fi The first list was a "higgledy- 
piggledy 5r affair. In the second, we arranged 
the words according to the principles of mental 
connection, and the haphazard element gave 
place to system. , 

There is another sphere in which order is the 
secret, and that is the sphere of classification. 
We are all classifiers, whether we know it or 
not. The boy who brings the newspapers round 
every morning is a classifier, but he never calls 
himself by that name; and if he were to ask the 
boy from a competing news-agent's, whether 
he, too, had "classified" his customers, the sec- 



16 



PELMANISM 



ond boy would probably misunderstand. Both 
boys are classifiers: they do not grab an armful 
of papers, then begin to deliver them, going 
here, there, and everywhere, often visiting some 
streets three times. Like the postman, they 
classify their addresses, and organize the whole 
journey so as to deliver the newspapers without 
going over the same ground twice. Similarly 
the boy at the railway bookstall is a classifier j 
he arranges his magazines and papers in a man- 
ner that not only appeals to the customer's eye, 
but enables him to find at once whatever is re- 
quired by a purchaser. 

Examples of Classification — Classification, as 
a word, is usually associated with the study of 
science, or of logic, but, as may be seen from the 
illustrations just given, it is a method employed 
by all who have to deal with masses of articles. 
Without classification the work of distributing 
goods would be endless. It is a method used by 
the librarian. How else could he find the books 
that are wanted? Whichever way we turn we 
find this work of classification going on; and 
where it is not carried out efficiently there is con- 
fusion and failure. 

Here is a mechanic wno uses a number of 
drills, which are kept in a box at his side. When 
he changes a drill, he has to turn over perhaps 
ten or twelve before he fingers the right one, 
thus wasting time and movement. Someone 
suggests that the drills should be classified, 



MEMORY 



17 



marked, and stuck in a "drill plate" in the order 
of size. This is done, and the gain in speed and 
accuracy is considerable, for the mechanic sees 
the drills standing up like a set of organ pipes, 
and reaches for the size he wants without touch- 
ing the others. Classification in the workshop is 
just as necessary as it is in the laboratory of the 
scientist. 

ON ARRANGING EXPERIENCES 

Now, in order to bring the matter home to 
you, we are about to ask a personal question. 
"Have you learned to classify the facts you deal 
with^every day, usually described as Experi- 
ence'?" Do you arrange, according to a plan, 
all the newthings you learn, or do you accumu- 
late them in a general heap? For instance, if 
you pick up a popular paper and read that a cer- 
tain burglar wrote a book while serving a sen- f 
tence, do you simply say "He must have been 
a unique burglar" and then forget the matter, 
or do you immediately place the fact in its proper 
association with other books, some of them fa- 
mous, which have been written in prison? If 
you do, then your powers work on the principles 
of mental connection, you classify your knowl- 
edge as it comes to you. If you do not y you will 
find that you forget half of what you read, be- 
cause its associations are weak. You will also 
experience more difficulty in learning, and new 
ideas will be slow in coming. 



18 



PELMANISM 



Untidy Minds — Such are the evils of having 
a disorderly mind, in which impressions, ideas, 
convictions, fancies, and all the phenomena of 
consciousness are so poorly arranged that one 
never knows where to find anything when he 
wants it. Classification is the introduction of 
order into the mental life: it makes a place for 
everything and puts everything in its place. 
"But how do we classify experience?" demands 
a reader. "Take the events of an average day 
and tell me what I ought to do." Let us try to 
show you how it is done. 

In the first place, don't make a tremendous 
business of it. It is really quite a simple affair 
and not one to worry about. If the mind could 
not do its own classifying to some extent, ra- 
tional life would be greatly impeded. But the 
principles of mental connection, fortunately, 
work unconsciously. Life would not be worth 
living if, immediately you got out of bed in the 
morning you had to begin solemnly to classify 
the toilet soap, then the towel, then the break- 
fast, and so on throughout the livelong day. 
There is a time to classify these things, and it is 
done unconsciously by repeated use. Begin with 
the morning paper j not consciously, with the 
teeth set, but with an alert mind, and when you 
have found an interesting item about the com- 
ing elections, or a paragraph on the chemistry 
of soils, or discovered one about a clue to a 



MEMORY 



19 



missing Raphael, connect it with any previous 
item you have met with on the same subject, de- 
liberately exploring your consciousness for pos- 
sible associations by way of similarity or contrast. 
You may have no other chance during the day 
of exercising your mind in this way; but if you 
form the habit you will classify ideas and infor- 
mation unconsciously and without effort. 

UNIFYING KNOWLEDGE 

At first, success may not be marked, but you 
will have received a vivid impression of the item 
that interested you, and when, some mornings 
later, you read a paragraph about some candi- 
date, the building of a new Agricultural Col- 
lege, or the latest purchase of a Raphael, your 
recall of the previous impressions will be in- 
stantaneous, and you will thus have classified 
and unified your knowledge. 

Judgment — As — your knowledge increases 
there will come to you the power of judgme nt; 
that ls^opinions of more or less weight wilTbe 
formed. You cannot classify two items of 
knowledge about mineral oil without compar- 
ing or contrasting them; and out of this process 
you evolve a conclusion, tentative, it may be, 
but a conclusion at any rate. If an item in the 
papers about Baku oil contains the information 
that a vast new territory was to be opened 
up, and an item about Roumania hints that the 
wells have practically been exhausted, you could 



20 



PELMANISM 



not very well link the two items together without 
drawing an inference as to the probable rise in 
Baku shares, and, perhaps, in the price of lamp 
oil. The listless absorber of newspaper print 
might fail, through force of habit, to register a 
connection, but not you. 

Importance of Standards — The value of your 
judgments or opinions is determined by the ex- 
tent of your acquaintance with the best stand- 
ards. A popular illustration may be found in 
the awarding of prizes at a dog show. If you 
were suddenly called upon to act as a judge, 
owing to the absence of an expert of canines, 
what would be expected of you?i First, your 
classification would have to be accurate. If an 
owner brought up a basset hound and you classed 
it as a dachshund, you would, to say the least, 
be discredited in the eyes of your fellow judges. 
To them it would be almost as criminal as if you 
had mistaken a bloodhound for a pomeranian. 
Next, he must have an intimate acquaintance 
with the best representatives of each class; he 
must have good standards. A knowledge of 
these standards comes to him from classified ex- 
perience and from the close study of types. The 
dictionary defines the word standard as "a meas- 
ure of quantity, quality, or value established by 
law or general consent." We should prefer to 
say that it is established by the scientific method, 
of which more anon. 



MEMORY 



21 



CLASSIFICATION AND KNOWLEDGE 

It should be clearly understood that these 
mental processes which we have tried to explain 
by using familiar topics are precisely the same 
as those used in all the higher branches of 
knowledge. A classification of dogs is just as 
legitimate as a classification of stars, of rocks, of 
the fine arts, or of human emotions; without 
such classifications the acquisition of knowledge 
would be a matter of supreme difficulty. 

If, for instance, you had to arrange all flower- 
ing plants into classes, the better to know them, 
an amateur would need half a lifetime to deal 
with only one genus; whereas you find that bot- 
anists have done this work already, thus simpli- 
fying your labors, and enabling you to identify 
at once flowers which you have not seen before. 
Moreover, you can rem^g^er4^t^lsmcu:jeL^ily 
whenk^wfcdgfl concerning them is organized; 
and new conceptions ansem th g mifld~ffi th 
greater readiness. Fortunately, the important 
spheres of life and thought have already re- 
ceived a provisional classification, and it remains 
for us to make use of this fact for the advance- 
ment of our own intellectual interests, by mas- 
tering such classifications as we need and by 
studying individual cases. This brings us to 
Definition. 



22 



PELMANISM 



THE NEED OF DEFINITION 

Definition, broadly considered, has to do with 
what a thing is. Even when we have a classifi- 
cation before us, it is not always easy to arrive at 
a definition, on account of obscurities which are 
continually arising. Here is a case in point. 
Some years ago a woman in New York applied 
to the courts for an annulment of marriage, de- 
claring that when she was married, her husband 
had kept from her the fact that he was not white. 
To some people this sounds like an absurdity. 
They cannot believe that a woman could pos- 
sibly have failed to recognize a colored man. 
"Impossible" is their verdict. There are white 
men, brown men, black men, yellow men, and 
"variegated": this makes up the classification. 

No doubt, but cases arise in which it is not 
easy to say to which of many classes an indi- 
vidual distinctly is assigned. The woman re- 
ferred to called in experts, who, after examining 
her husband, found certain conformations and 
colors of the finger nails, among other peculiar- 
ities which, despite the apparent whiteness of the 
skin, proclaimed the man an immediate descend- 
ant of negro or semi-negro ancestors. The wife 
won her case. Hence the saying that classifica- 
tion deals with groups, and definition with indi- 
viduals. They represent two sides of one 
thought process. Moreover, a group may some- 
times figure as an individual in reference to a 



MEMORY 



23 



larger group, both in the ordinary affairs of life 
and also in natural science. Indeed, the sub- 
stance of what scientific research has revealed of 
the multiplicity of forms of animal and vege- 
table life may be represented by a geneological 
tree. 

MARKS OF THE TRAINED MIND 

Two marks of a trained mind are (a) its abil- 
ity J;o classify experience and to deal w ith indi- 
vidual instances, and (b) its knowledge of the 
best standards. The reader is, thereiore,^3rged 
to introduce more order into his thought-life. 
The process itself is often greatly illuminating; 
the sudden confrontation of one experience with 
a like experience, happening in different circum- 
stances, may result in a flash of insight carrying 
the mind altogether beyond the limits of the 
classification itself. 

It must not be forgotten that all our ordered 
schemes of knowledge are tentative arrange- 
ments; they stand for the best we know, but they 
are not final. Thus, in the early nineteenth cen- 
tury literary criticism had its own rules for 
evaluating prose and poetry, and when a fa- 
mous reviewer applied them to Wordsworth's 
poems the verdict was uttered in the now famous 
words, "This will never do." Eventually, it 
was the rules of literary criticism which would 
not do, and they were scrapped. The classifica- 
tion was wrong, hence the standard of values 
could not possibly be true ones. 



24- 



PELMANISM 



It was a wiser world that welcomed Kipling, 
whose works did not fit the prevalent classifica- 
tion. Speaking of him, in conjunction with Loti, 
Mr. Edmund Gosse says: "The old rhetorical 
manner of criticism was not meant for the dis- 
cussion of such writers as these." 1 

So while you classify your experience, always 
remember that experience transcends classifica- 
tion. You cannot put life into a scheme} the 
unknown "x" confronts us everywhere. Be pre - 
pared to modif y your classification as you g ain 

Look forlTie^ are con- 

stantly changing. New social standards, money 
standards, standards of education and morality 
are ever slowly evolving} consequently we are 
not surprised when we see differences asserting 
themselves. The real question for us, however, 
is: "What is the standard now?"We do not mean 
in any one thing, but in everything with which 
we are concerned. The one safe r ule is to k now 
that standard which stands for excellence. 

For instance, a student wishes to begin the 
study of Profit Sharing, considered as a payment 
from the capitalist to the workman. Some 
writers think this is economically sound} others 
deny it. Few students begin their inquiries in 
any other way but by purchasing an elementary, 
and perhaps one-sided discussion of the subject. 
He would be much better advised if he went di- 



1 Question at Issue, p. 258. 



MEMORY 



25 



rect to a standard authority j or, to the best 
writer on one side, then to the best on the other 
side. In that way one can easily classify the 
writers of lesser calibre and appraise their ar- 
guments. 

V— THE PELMAN PRINCIPLES OF 
OF MENTAL CONNECTION 

We now turn to an analysis of the principles 
of connection which enabled you to remember 
the Town-Island series, appearing on page 14. 
Perhaps, as you first studied this list of words, 
you were not conscious of the laws of association 
which made possible their retention and recall. 
A study of these laws will give you the idea of 
classifying and the idea> actuated by interest will 
give rise to the habit of classifying. 

THE PRIMARY LAWS OF ASSOCIATION 

The stimulus infant may elicit the response 
baby. This illustrates association by similarity. 

The word bad may call to mind the word 
good. This illustrates association by contrast. 
The word door may cause you to think knob. 
The word lightning may cause you to think 
thunder. The last two examples illustrate asso- 
ciation by contiguity (the state of being in close 
union or contact). Door and knob are contigu- 
ous in space. Lightning and thunder are con- 
tiguous in time. 

The Personal Element — In going through 



26 



PELMANISM 



any list of connected words you will sometimes 
find that a personal association is stronger than 
any other. When this is the case you should use 
the personal association. You may also find that 
two words are capable of being grouped under 
two or more of the principles of connection. 
This fact arises from the complexity of experi- 
ence, which offers us opportunities of taking dif- 
ferent points of view. Cane and fain are obvi- 
ously connected by similarity of sound} but there 
might also be a connection in the mind of a rheu- 
matic person who used a cane to relieve the pain 
of walking. Who is to say which of these con- 
nections takes precedence? For our purposes 
the main thing is to perceive possible connections 
and to use them to- improve memory and 
thought. 

Under certain conditions night may suggest 
sadness or solitude; under entirely different con- 
ditions night may suggest love or haffiness. 
Neither similarity nor contrast nor contiguity 
resides as a quality in objects or words as they 
exist} rather they reside in objects or words as 
these objects or wordsjggjst for th oferson who 
fer^02^ij^hem. Briefly, tKi attitude orfTftfose 
of the perion who makes the association is the 
essential criterion. 

THE LAWS OF ASSOCIATION 
ILLUSTRATED 

Because of the findings just described, most 



MEMORY 



27 



psychologists place mental connections under 
three main headings: 

1. A fsnrAfitinn bv similarity. 



(b) in time. 

We shall discuss these principles in detail but 
not for the purpose of requesting you to learn 
the numerous sub-divisions. The outline, we 
hope, will make clear the important principles 
underlying the three laws: similarity, contrast, 
and contiguity. 

( 1 ) Association by similarity. The' first prin- 
ciple is so named because the connection is due 
to the tendency of the mind to note similarities. 
The sub-divisions of the principle of similarity 
are: 

(a) Synonymy. In this case the two words 
represent the same idea and have almost 
the same meaning; one word can be used 
in place of the other without any great 
alteration in the sense. For example, 
ghost and apparition . jire^ sylionymous. 
So are poor and indigent;' frequently , 
often; worky labor; empty y vacant; 
tired, weary; question , query; obtain, 
procure. 




(b) in sound. 
2. Association by contrast. 



3. Association by contig uity. 
(a) in space y 



28 



PELMANISM 



(b) General and Particular. The word 
"General" in this sense means class, or 
kind of 'thing, but it is always a class or 
kind which includes several distinguish- 
ing subdivisions known as "Particular." 
For example: Animal would be Gen- 
eral, and dog y cat y or elephant would be 
Particular. Flower and daisy is another 
example, flower being the General, and 
daisy being the Particular. Dog and 
terrier are General and Particular} so 
are city y New York; tree y oak; fish y cod; 
author y Shakespeare; school y high- 
school; move y run; color y green. 

(c) Common Denominator. This classifica- 
tion is applicable where the two ideas are 
of the same sort or kind and can both be 
included under a wider or more general 
kind known as "General," the two ideas 
existing subordinately, or side by side, 
within the same general class. Compare 
the following examples of the Common 
Denominator with the examples already 
given of General and Particular. Oak 
and elm are Common Denominator, for 
they are both trees. Red and blue are 
Common Denominator, for they are 
both colors. Other examples are London y 
Paris (both capitals) ; dog y cat (both do- 
mestic animals) ; walk, run (both being 
sorts of movement) j Sunday y Monday 



MEMORY 



29 



(both days of the week) j terrier > foodie 
(both dogs) j New York y Halifax (both 
ports) } cod, herring; Shakes f ear e y Mil- 
ton; man y woman; colonel y captain; 
crayon y fen; coat y hat; boot y stocking. 

(d) Whole and Part. This sub-division is 
very easy to understand, for it includes 
all those cases in which one of the ideas 
is a part of the other. Horse and head 
would be an instance of Whole and Part, 
horse being the Whole and head the Part. 
Other examples are: man y arm; lion y 
mane; forest, tree; year y month; book, 
leaves; loaf y crust; Canada y Ontario; at- 
mosfhere y oxygen. 

(e) Object and Attribute. Here one of the 
two words will be found to denote a per- 
son or thing, while the other expresses 
some characteristic quality, or attribute, 
or action peculiar to that thing. We di- 
vide this section into three: (a) Object 
and Attribute} (b) Object and Function} 
(c) Object and Accessory. For example, 
under the first (a) we include snow and 
white; ice and cold; lead and heavy; 
desert and dry; night and dark. Under 
the second, (b) we include fish and 
swim; bird and sing; man and walk; 
scales and weigh. Under the third, (c) 
we include mother and good; heat and 
offressive; laziness and failure. Notice 



30 



PELMANISM 



here that although table y wood y is an 
example of Whole and Part, yet table y 
woo den y is an example of Object and At- 
tribute, for wooden is an adjective. 
Table y wooden tabley would be an ex- 
ample of General and Particular, table 
here being General, while wooden table 
would describe for us the particular kind 
or species of table. 

(f ) Cause and Effect. The application of this 
classification is simple. It is used when 
one of two ideas follows as the effect or 
result of the other. An illustration is 
seen in labor and weariness, in which 
labor is the cause and weariness the effect. 
Another example would be printing- 
fresSy booky the printing-press being the 
cause and the book the result. The fol- 
lowing are additional examples: Illness, 
fretful; wealthy comfort; cloudy rain; 
cigar y smoke; clouds y gloom. 

(g) Complement. This Principle of Inherent 
Connection seldom is used. It occurs in 
cases in which one idea demands the ex- 
istence of a second and correlative idea in 
order to complete the thought suggested, 
as parent y child; teacher, pupil; shep- 
herd y flock; lecturer y audience. 

(h) Sound Similarity. This subdivision dif- 
fers from the others in that the connec- 
tion occurs between two words whenever 



MEMORY 



31 



one word, or a part of one word, sounds 
very much like the other word, or like a 
part of the other word. For instance, the 
sounds knight and night are perfectly 
similar. Bird and Burden is another 
good example of this law. Notice that in 
Similarity of Sound the similarity should 
occur either in the whole word, or else 
in the accented syllables. The following 
are examples: Pick-axe y axiom; bright y 
bride; son y sun; brother y another; ocean y 
notion; tent y attentive; flock y flog; stock y 
stocking; feet y feed; great y grade; tie y 
tile; afe y April; fool y tool. 

The second of the Three Principles of Mental 
Connection is the Principle of Contrast. In this 
case the connection is not one of mere difference. 
It is not sufficient that the two ideas be unlike one 
another. In order to be classed under Opposi- 
tion or Contrast they must be absolutely con- 
trary to one another. For example, wood and 
iron must not be classified under opposition, since 
though they are unlike one another, they are not 
the exact opposite of one another. Hard and soft 
are examples of contrariety because they repre- 
sent extreme opposites. North and South would 
be a case of Opposition, and so would East and 
West y but North and West would not be opposi- 
tion, nor would South and West. The following 
are examples of Opposition: light y dark; day y 



32 



PELMANISM 



night; strong, weak; well, ill; war, peace; shorty 
long; friend y enemy; thick, thin; idle, industri- 
ous; giant y dwarf. 

The Third Principle of Mental Connection is 
the Principle of Contiguity. In this case the con- 
nection does not arise out of any similarity be- 
tween the two ideas themselves, but is due to the 
fact that the two ideas happen to have been pre- 
sented to the mind under circumstances likely to 
bind them together, so that the thought of one 
recalls the thought of the other. Wellington 
and Waterloo are examples of Contiguity, for, 
although there is no similarity between the two, 
one can scarcely think of Wellington without 
thinking also of the Battle of Waterloo. Again, 
room y and chair would be an example of Con- 
tiguity y the two objects are in no way related 
save that they usually exist together in time and 
space. One never thinks of chair without bring- 
ing to mind the thought of room. Other ex- 
amples are: water y can; watch y pocket; city, traf- 
fic; holiday y country; lightning, thunder. 

Connections by Contiguity are often purely 
personal in their character, and depend upon the 
special knowledge or experience of the indivi- 
dual. To a man who kept a tame monkey in his 
garden the example "garden y monkey yy might 
be a strong instance of Contiguity, though to the 
majority of persons the connection would be un- 
noticeable. 

The three Principles of Mental Connection — 



MEMORY 



33 



similarity, contrast, contiguity , — are of greatest 
importance and should be mastered thoroughly. 
The subdivisions are given to enable you to learn 
through many illustrations the three main prin- 
ciples. 

THE APPLICATION OF ANALYSIS 

Let us now proceed to examine the application 
of these Three Principles of Mental Connection 
to the list of fifteen words as re-arranged on 
page 1 4. ( See below) . It was by means of a sub- 
conscious recognition of these Laws that you 
were enabled to remember the list so readily. 
The conscious and deliberate analysis of the con- 
nections would have made the task still more 
easy and the recall more nearly permanent. In 
the following example you should reason out 
carefully for yourself each connection: 



Town 
House 
indow 
Glass 
Lens 
Camera 



r H 

Whole and Part S Wi 

Attribute and Object ^ 

Contiguity | p 

General and Particular ] Man 
t Animal 

Whole and Part { 
Object and Accessory { 
Common Denominator | 

Now, without reading this series of words 
again, endeavor to write this list backward, be- 



Cat 

Fur 
Warm 
Africa 
Continent 
Island 



Whole and Part 
Whole and Part 
Whole and Part 
General and Particular 
General and Particular 
Object and Attribute 
General and Particular 



34 



PELMANISM 



\ 



ginning with the word "island" and working 
back to the word "town." This also you will 
probably achieve without hesitation. 

The Repetition of a "Series" — When repeat- 
ing any similar series of connected words, say the 
words of the series alone, and do not repeat or 
trouble to think about the classification. The 
classification enables you to learn the series in 
the first instance, so that afterward you can re- 
peat the series itself without recalling the classi- 
fication. At first never attempt to learn a series 
of connected words merely by several repetitions 
of the words, but always by classifying in accord- 
ance with the connecting laws. In time you will 
be able to remember a list of words without con- 
sciously making the analysis. Perhaps you can do 
this now. 

The Translation of "Series" — If you know a 
foreign language, you will find that you can 
translate the "Town" Series into that language 
and repeat it forward and backward as easily as 
in your native tongue. Such an exercise is of 
great value to all who are studying foreign lan- 
guages. A series which contains examples of sim- 
ilarity of sound should not be translated unless 
an equally striking similarity of sound exists be- 
tween the two words after translation. If you 
study the following series of one hundred words 
carefully, taking about a dozen words at a time 
and analyzing the connections as you did in the 
"Town" series, you will find that you can im- 



MEMORY 



35 



mediately repeat the whole series from memory, 
forward or backward. Like the words "Town" 
to "Island," the Series from "Island" to "Deep" 
may be translated into any language. 

Continuation of the "Town" Series: 



Island 


Strong 


Needle 


Coal 


Sting 


Water 


Steel 


Sew 


Mine 


Bee 


Drink 


Battleship Garment Quarry 


Queen 


Eat 


Gun 


Cnat 


Stone 


King 


Breakfast Shell 


Si PPVP 
oicc V t 


Monument Crown 


Morning Explosion 


Arm 


Great 


Gold 


Night 


JVound 


Hand 


Small 


Money 


Sleep 


Surgeon 


Finger 


Child 


Wealth 


Bed 


Physician 


Ring^ 


Girl 


Luxury 


Soft 


Medicine 


Marriaj 


je Pinafore 


Motor Car 


Hard 


Quinine 


Church 


Apron 


Wheels 


Diamond Bitter 


Organ 


Dainty 


Round 


Sapphire 


Sweet 


Music 


Delicate 


Earth 


Blue 


Pleasant 


Song 


Fragile 


Sun 


Green 


Holiday 


Words 


Care 


Sun Dial 


Leaf 


Voyage 


Book 


Careless 


Clock 


Plant 


Ship 


Author 


Lazy 


Time 


Garden 


Sail 


Pen 


Punish 


Space 


Bird 


Canvas 


Ink 


Whip 


Wide 


Eagle 


Cotton 1 


Black 


Birch 


Deep. 



Mind-Wandering — It is obvious that there is 
practically no limit to the number of words that 
might be committed to memory in this way, be- 
cause the mind is never troubled with more than 
two ideas at a time. If the student cares to con- 



1 Before translating, place "thread" between cotton and needle. 



36 



PELMANISM 



struct a series of his own, he will find that, if the 
ideas come within the laws of connection when 
taken two at a time, and if he carefully compares 
each pair before proceeding to the next pair, he 
can remember a series of a thousand words as 
easily as he remembers a series of twenty. 

When constructing a series you should take 
care that each word you add has a more intimate 
connection with the word immediately preceding 
it than with any word a few steps earlier in the 
series. Thus, in the "Island" series, it would be 
unwise to write "Island, water, drink, liquid" 
for although there is a connection between 
"liquid" and "drink" there is a still closer and 
more obvious connection between "liquid" and 
"water." If you were to write "water, drink, 
liquid," it would suggest that when you wrote 
the word "liquid" you had failed to drive out 
from your mind the idea of "water." Your atten- 
tion was centered more strongly on "water" 
than on "drink." 

VI— USEFUL APPLICATIONS 
OF ASSOCIATION 

Suppose that you have to learn the thirty-six 
exceptions to the rule that in Latin all nouns of 
the third declension ending in is are feminine. 
Many a schoolboy has labored hard and long 
over these thirty-six words, only to forget them 
again, and never to be sure that he knew all of 
them. 



MEMORY 



37 



Let us arrange these thirty-six exceptions in 
pairs so that we shall have to pay attention to 
only two of them at a time. The connection may 
not be so obvious as in the first series, but a little 



(English) 


(Latin) 


(English) 


(Latin) 


Mullet 


Mugilis 


Bundle 


Fascis 


Fish 


Piscis 


Club 


Fustis 


River 


Amnis 


Lever 


Vectis 


Canal 


Canalis 


Axle-tree 


Axis 


Ditch 


Scrobis 


Ploughshare 


Vomis 


Worm 


Vermis 


Sword 


Ensis 


Dust 


Pulvis 


Nail 


Unguis 


Path 


Callis 


Blood 


Sanguis 


Hillock 


Collis 


Snake 


Anguis 


Stone 


Lapis 


Dormouse 


Glis 


Fire 


Ignis 


Net 


Cassis 


Firebrand 


Torris 


Hair 


Crinis 


Bellows 


Follis 


Rope 


Funis 


Ashes 


Cinis 


Collar 


Torquis 


Fine Flour 


Pollis 


Circle 


Orbis 


Bread 


Panis 


Month 


Mensis 


Cucumber 


Cucumis 


End 


Finis 


Cabbage 


Caulis 


Doorpost 


Postis 



Now, a peculiarity about a list of words learnt 
in this manner is that it is not necessary to repeat 
the whole list to discover whether any particular 
word is in it or not, because, if the word is in the 
series, it will immediately recall the word with 
which it was associated. If it is not, it will recall 
nothing. You do not need to repeat the "Town" 



38 



PELMANISM 



series of words to tell us that "cat" was in it, and 
that "annex" was notj nor the second series to 
tell us whether or not ensis, piscis, finis or cassis 
are exceptions. Whether you learn the series in 
English or Latin makes no difference, provided 
you know the exact meaning of the Latin words. 

Clues to Over Three Thousand French Words 
— More than three thousand words with the fol- 
lowing twenty-two endings are spelled the same 
in French as in English. 



able. 


Abominable. 


ace. 


Disgrace. 


cle. 


Ohstacle. 


ade. 


Hiarricade. 


al. 


Illegal, 


ance. 


Resistance. 


ant. 


Constant 


ence. 


Patience. 


ent. 


Impatient. 


g e - 


Rage. 


ible. 


Reprehensible. 


ice. 


Avarice. 


ite. 


Petite. 


ct. 


Strict. 


ine. 


DiscipbW. 


ion. 


Legion. 


tude. 


Multitude. 


gue. 


Demagogue. 


ule. 


Ridicule. 


ure. 


Caricature. 


ile. 


Hostile. 


et. 


PamphW. 



MEMORY 



39 



La brochure is French for an ordinary pam- 
phlet: le pamphlet for a hostile pamphlet only. 

It will be observed that these twenty-two spe- 
cimen words, forming the "Abominable" series, 
selected from the larger list of three thousand 
odd, are joined together by the Principles of 
Mental Connection. 

How this principle o f mmparjffpr ^ n H classify- 
ing i deals may be app heo^^fy and at^t™ ^ 
to the infinitely various problems of memory 
wilinSe* shown as the lessons proceed. Some ap- 
plications will be immediately obvious, such as in 
speaking without notes. What are notes for but 
to re mind vou of that w hicK^me^ 
minister, the lawyer, or the lectui^ 1 does not 
jump from the idea with which he starts to some- 
thing totally foreign to his subject. tjis-i«*e of 
thou ght and argument, with _g gP ro P r ^ a ^p il lus- 
tratfon, is planned out beforehand and divided 
into^ heading's: if these divisions fotlSw^ne 
another logically, he has only to write them 
down and compare them two at a time, classify- 
ing the connection, to remember each of them in 
its exact order, regardless of their number. If 
you are a public speaker, try it. If you do not 
know what comes next in your discourse, the 
arrangement of your topics is probably inept. 

VII— RECALL 

In discussing impression and registration of 
material, of necessity we have to touch upon re- 



40 



PELMANISM 



call — the third stage in memory. The greater 
the number of logical associations formed when 
material is first learned, the greater the number 
of contacts and clues we possess to recall or re- 
collect that material. When attemp tin g to re call 
something, seek these contacts and clues with per- 
sistence and confidence. If you desire the name 
of an author, think of the title of a book he has 
written} recall the main ideas in the bookj where 
and when you read the book, etc. If you find 
yourself still unable to give the author's name, 
slowly recite the alphabet — a y b y c, d y e y j — 
Faraday comes to you immediately. 

THE RECOLLECTION OF ISOLATED 
FACTS 

The subconscious action of Association may 
sometimes be employed effectually in the effort 
to recall an isolated fact, the remembrance of 
which cannot be awakened easily by any other 
means. The method is to return to the surround- 
ings in which you last were aware of the fact you 
wish to remember. Forj^mp^ 
mislaid a bunch of keys, you may remember 
where you placed them if you go back to the 
place where you know you last used them. If 
you have "forgotten" the funny story told you 
by a friend, it may recur to you if you think of 
what preceded it. The reproduction of some of 
the component elements in a situation tends to 
revive in the mind the impressions made by 



MEMORY 



41 



other component elements which may not be ac- 
tually reproduced without such stimulus. It is, 
of course, impossible to classify these purely ar- 
bitrary associations, depending as they do chiefly 
upon propinquity of time and place. 

AN ACTRESS ON MEMORY 

In this connection, it is interesting to record 
what Mrs. Kendall, the celebrated actress, has to 
say about the way in which actors and actresses 
remember their speeches. She says: 

"The memory can be cultivated, like any 
other faculty, up to a certain pitch. Practice 
works wonders. If you have not played a part 
for years, the re-reading of it three or four times 
only will bring it back to you. There is much op- 
portunity on the stage to help our memory. We 
have what is called the 'business' of the scene. 
The fact that you have to do certain things 
brings a certain line back to your memory. Often 
when you enter your house, and sit at the same 
place and at the same table, the memory of the 
past returns, 'C'est la meme chose sur la scene.' 
A little bit of 'business' brings back a speech} the 
remembrance of a speech brings back a bit of 
'business:' the one helps the other. Still, though 
an exceptional memory is not absolutely neces- 
sary, it is an enormous help. 

"The most extraordinary instance of memory 
that I personally remember was that of old Mr. 
Buckstone, who used to come upon the stage at 



42 



PELMANISM 



rehearsals, reading his part and not knowing a 
word j but he would come on at night, and the 
clothes, and the situation, and the whole thing, 
brought the words back to him, I am speaking 
of the repetition of an old part. The fact of put- 
ting on the clothes, and dressing for the part, 
and speaking about it for a little, brought it 
back" 

VIII— SO-CALLED "SYSTEMS 
OF MNEMONICS" 

Various systems of Mnemonics are founded 
upon arbitrary associations of locality. In some 
of these, the pupil is directed to rule a square 
sheet of paper into nine or sixteen squares, and 
to imagine that he sees in each square a word or 
picture indicative of the fact to be remembered. 
It would be appalling to contemplate the chaotic 
state of a mind subjected to such a tax through 
several weeks of diligent study. A somewhat 
similar system instructs the pupil to locate and 
picture in imagination all the facts he wants to 
remember, as being present in some room fam- 
iliar to him. There would be obvious impedi- 
ments in the way of applying this method to the 
memorization of a list of the Presidents of the 
United States, or the mountains of Europe, or 
the Emperors of Rome. 

LEGITIMATE USE OF ARTIFICIAL AIDS 

But although the systems just mentioned are 
not in accord with the laws of psychology, it 



MEMORY 



43 



must not be assumed that every artificial aid to 
memory is to be condemned as worthless. Thou- 
sands of students of physics have remembered 
the order of the colors in the spectrum by the ar- 
tificial word "Vibgyor," in which V stands for 
violet, I for indigo, B for blue, G for green, Y 
for yellow, O for orange, and R for red. Again, 
the letters p,a,d, forming the word "pad" give 
the initials of the membranes of the brain from 
within outward: p — piaj a — arachnoid j d — 
dura. 

The cutaneous nerves crossing the region of 
the Iliac crest may be remembered by the word 
"slide," in which s — sacral nerves j 1 — lumbar 
nerves j i — ilio-gastricj d — dorsal, and e — exter- 
nal cutaneous. 

Pike's Peak is 14, 147 feet high. This number 
can easily be remembered because it consists of 
two 14's and a half of 14. Telephone numbers 
can often be remembered by the application of 
the same principle. Take the telephone number 
114. If one were born on the 4th day of the 
11th month, 114 can easily be remembered. 
There are undoubtedly hundreds of similar ap- 
plications of these principles. 

A school pupil studying history may use the 
following device: 

L — Lexington, battle of, 1775. 

I — Independence, Declaration of, 1776. 

B — Burgoyne's campaign, 1777. 

E — Evacuation of Philadelphia, 1778. 



44 



PELMANISM 



R — Richard, Bonhomme, Paul Jones, 1779. 

T— Treason of Arnold, 1780. 

Y — Yorktown's capture, 1781. 
Thus the word liberty and date 1775 serve as the 
bases for the associations. 

Rhyme as an Adventitious Aid to Memory — 
Verse is usually memorized with greater rapidity 
than prose, and this is largely due to associations 
of rhyme and rhythm. For this reason verse may 
occasionally prove to be a short cut to the recol- 
lection of certain facts. Probably most of us owe 
our recollection of the number of days in each 
month to the old rhyme: "Thirty days hath Sep- 
tember." 

It cannot be too strongly insisted upon that 
such expedients as those illustrated in the last 
paragraphs should be considered merely as aids 
and not in any way as a substitute for a true 
psychological development of the memory, such 
as that embodied in the Pelman System. 

RECOLLECTION IN THINGS 
THEMSELVES 

It is in the little things of life that the ability 
to remember without a note-book is the most 
useful. Two men at the club look very much 
alike. One is named Weissmann and the other 
Gardner. Weissmann wears glasses, and you 
select that peculiarity to distinguish the two men 
because there are two s's in "Weissmann" and 
also in "eyeglass." 



MEMORY 



45 



Two foreign words confuse you, and you can 
never recollect which is which. Let us suppose 
that they are the German words "unten" and 
"unter," one of which is an adverb, while the 
other is a preposition. The only difference be- 
tween the words themselves is in the final letters, 
"n" and "r." Compare the alphabetical order of 
these final letters with the alphabetical order of 
the initials of the words "adverb" and "preposi- 
tion," and the agreement is at once apparent. In 
this case it is not the meaning of the words that 
you wish to fix, but their use. 

In an examination in geography, a little girl 
could never remember which mountain chain 
had the broader plateau, the Rockies or the 
Andes. When it was pointed out to her that 
there was an "n" in "Andes" and in "narrow," 
and none in "Rockies" the idea became fixed. 

The "Oxford" color is dark blue and the 
"Cambridge" is light blue. There is an "i" and 
also a "g" in "Cambridge" and in "light" j there 
is neither in "Oxford" and in "dark." 

To remember the difference between the com- 
plement and the supplement of an angle in ge- 
ometry: the "complement" is what remains after 
subtracting from "one" right angle; the "sup- 
plement" is what remains after subtracting from 
<c two" right angles. Observe that there is only 
one "p" in "complement," and that there are two 
in "supplement," which agrees with the number 
of right angles in each term. 



46 



PELMANISM 



IX— RECOGNITION 

Recognition,) the last stage in memory, implies 
that we react toward an object of past experience 
with a feeling of familiarity which could not oc- 
cur the first time the object was experienced. 
Recognition does not depend entirely upon recall 
because the baby appears to recognize before he 
gives evidence of recall. Furthermore we are all 
aware of the fact that we recognize the meaning 
of words which we would be unable to recall for 
use in our speaking vocabulary. 

Recognition probably does not depend upon 
recall but it does rest upon association, the same 
basis upon which recall is built. If necessity de- 
mands recall instead of mere recognition, then 
one should deepen and enrich the associations 
so that recall is possible. From this viewpoint 
recognition is the step in memory which precedes 
the more developed step — recall. However, the 
mere ability to recognize is frequently adequate 
for the need at hand. The person alone con- 
cerned can make the decision as to whether or 
not the ability to recognize is the only trait de- 
sired. 



MEMORY 



47 



X— DON'TS 

"D on't allow your resolutio ns to crumble j 
j ust continue in the spiri t with which you be- 
an the Course. 



2. Don't complain that you are a "born mind- 
wanderer." You may be, but conquer the 
habit by discipline. Hundreds have suc- 
ceeded before you. 

3. Don't skim this Lesson. Go over it until you 
know it. 

4. Don't fail to test your knowledge by self- 
questioning. 

5. Don't be satisfied with a ^//-knowledge of 
anything. Be thorough. 

6. Don't forget that the formal exercises we 
prescribe, will, if practiced, enable you to do 
unconsciously what was, at first, a conscious 
effort. 



48 



PELMANISM 



XI— THIS DO 



1 . In all mental training, effort should be car- 
ried out in a rational manner. Therefore, 
however diligently you work at mental con- 
nection see to it that your mind has its periods 



2. Decide what classifications you need in (a) 
your calling, and (b) for your private studies. 

3. Begin to use the principles of mental con- 
nection as an aid in the evolving of new 
ideas. 

4. Make it a matter of conscience, of fride y if 
you will, to work for certain prescribed pe- 
riods of time without allowing your mind 
to wander. 

5. Remember that mental training involves 
moral training. The virtue of perseverance 
is really the power of concentration in one of 
its many forms of expression. 





MEMORY 



49 



XII— MENTAL EXERCISES 
EXERCISE XXII 

There are no doubt several subjects of the 
greatest importance to you personally, either be- 
cause you are deeply interested in them or be- 
cause they concern your calling. Thus, for a 
paper manufacturer, any new item connected 
with glazing or water marks would instantly at- 
tract attention. A paragraph about a cutting ma- 
chine might not attract the same notice} and one 
about a new fibre might be read without more 
than a passing wonder. Nevertheless, both of 
these items may, ultimately, be of real import- 
ance to the paper-maker. The cutting machine 
may be more efficient for paper than the knives 
he is using, and the fibre may become an ingre- 
dient in a new sort of paper. 

This means that no sort of "cutter," and no 
kind of fibre, can be matters of indifference to 
the paper-maker j but the only way in which he 
can contribute to progressive movements is to 
classify all cutting machines and all materials 
that are likely to come into line with his purposes. 
If he fails in this respect it will be because the 
information in his mind, gathered from all 
sources, is unorganized} its possibilities can be 
appreciated only according as it is classified. 

Now, put yourself in the place of the paper 
manufacturer. Instead of the items which con- 
cern but which may escape him, discover those 



50 



PELMANISM 



which concern you. They are probably there in 
your consciousness, awaiting proper organiza- 
tion. As yet, the work of classifying and evalu- 
ating is incomplete. You are, therefore, losing 
a certain number of ideas which might be of 
great service. The man who is mentally alive 
does not lose them 5 he becomes the leader 
among his fellows, 

"But," you ask, "how am I to begin? Your 
advice sounds good, and yet I don't know how to 
make a start." We shall tell you by suggesting 
a series of questions. 

(a) What is the object of your calling? 

(b) How does it differ from closely allied call- 
ings? 

(c) When did new and advantageous methods 
appear, and who invented them? 

(d) In what other occupations are processes 
used similar to yours? Can you learn any- 
thing from them? 

(e) Have you unified all the knowledge you 
have obtained about your calling? 

To answer these questions properly is not a 
simple matter, get pen and paper and do the 
thing thoroughly. It is an excellent exercise in 
itself, and it has other values of importance. Let 
not the student object that as an exercise it deals 
with trade and commerce, not with studies. Sub- 
stitute the word studies for calling and the ques- 



MEMORY 



51 



tions are equally apposite. The exercise is not 
one that can be worked in an hour j it is rather a 
continuous process extending over a period, un- 
til memory has yielded up all its material, and 
the judgment has assessed its value. It applies 
to the employee as well as the employer, if the 
employee makes the employer's affairs his own 
concern. 

EXERCISE XXIII 

To repeat from memory a series of connected 
words which you have drawn up for yourself is 
not as good an exercise as to repeat a list which 
has been drawn up by someone else. The reason 
is obvious. In your own list the connections 
have been strengthened by the effort of imagina- 
tion j in the other list, it is necessary to perceive 
the connectives of another mind. Use the. 
"town" series and its continuation. 

EXERCISE XXIV 

At some time or other, everybody is called 
upon to make a speech. It may be a great occa- 
sion with an audience of thousands, or a small 
occasion like a presentation occupying a few 
minutes. In any case a certain order of ideas 
must be observed, and to remember this order is 
important. Here the principles of connection 
are a real help. Suppose you have to take part 
in a debate on "Is a lawyer justified in defending 
a prisoner of whose guilt he is cognizant?" The 
affirmative speaker has resumed his seat, and you 



52 



PELMANISM 



now stand up to argue the following points, 
which you wish to argue from memory. 

(a) It degrades Justice into a competition of 
skill between two lawyers both of whom 
believe in the prisoner's guilt. 

(b) It defeats Justice by clever but insincere 
pleading. 

(c) The lawyer becomes an accomplice of the 
prisoner when he deliberately frustrates 
the intention of -the Law he ought to 
uphold. 

(d) The lawyer who acts a lie cannot retain his 
self-respect. 

The main ideas of these four divisions can be 
"keyed" together in the following way: De- 
grades, defeats, accomplice, self-respect. 

Some students being good visualizers, they do 
not find it necessary to do more than to study 
the outline closely j they see the points mentally 
when speaking. Others can "see" nothing, and 
need a word series to fall back upon in case of 
momentary forgetfulness. In any event the ex- 
ercise of forming such a series is good from 
every point of view: concentration, analysis, 
classification, and logical sequence. 



MEMORY 53 

EXERCISE XXV 

Fill in the blanks of the following story. 
Each blank stands for one word. In some cases 
the first and last letter of a word are given. 

"The sergeant had been through .'WouM*-^. 

battles, in the last encounter half of his jaw had 
been . Vj^^y^* • awa Y- When in the hos- 
pital, he bore his sufferings p . . . . y, 

3 | 

until the .time when he began to be well x^/ ^ . A 
. ^Jt<4»4tt~for his relations to . . . . 

him. Then he was nervous. He was especially 
nervous about . . . v ^s^w^ . wife's seeing his 

6 

fractured . and 

the nurse pitifully to give him w A*?vWV^\ . . .g 

9 

of the approaching visit, so that he might 

. .^A*^jL/\*f himself for the ordeal. 'Pm a 

coward/ he lamented. When his wife came, he 
V^tefy^ 1 ^' ' ^ mse lf ^ or ^ e or deal. She 

was wonderfully brave. Just for a moment she 
shuddered, then . >'^J^ : \^^v^him." 

12 




54 



PELMANISM 



XIII— HEALTH EXERCISES 

SEVENTH LESSON 

It is merely the instinct of self preservation 
that causes one to put aside a little sum of money 
during his youth in order to make the declining 
years easier. It should also be to one's advan- 
tage to conserve or build in a physical sense for 
those days. It has been said that Americans are 
too energetic in their games and contests, but this 
can only be said of those who indulge in special- 
ized activities in which competition is very keen. 
Insurance companies inform us that the average 
span of life has increased from thirty-three 
years to fifty-three in the last twenty years. 
This refutes an over-specialization that is harm- 
ful. It would also indicate that there has been 
a very sensible attitude toward rational exercise. 
That there is a far more universal tendency to 
take exercise in some form is self evident. Golf, 
tennis, dancing, hiking, and bathing are all be- 
ing indulged in now by more people than twenty 
years ago. The danger lies, not in overexercise 
as much as in the fact that middle age will 
find people adopting only seasonal sports and 
remaining idle in out-of-season time. In order 
to keep one's muscle tone in its proper condition, 
simple enjoyable home exercises should be taken 
regularly every day. 



MEMORY 



55 



WEIGHT LIFTING 

Inasmuch as stretching is our watch word we 
begin as usual with some form of exercise that 
serves that purpose. Use your favorite in-bed 
exercise first j then, as soon as you get up, Stand 
Straight for a few seconds. In this position 
gradually raise the arms sideward and upward 
over the head, have the palms of the hands up 
and be sure that the chest is high and the hands 
are kept pretty well back of the shoulders. Now 
imagine that you have a weight in each hand and 
continue to raise them until they are straight 
over the head, the palms up and the hands 
facing the sides (Fig. 66). Now the weight 
grows heavier and you find that it pulls your 
arms down to your sides again. Make an effort 
to resist this downward movement, but at the 
same time allow the arms to return to the orig- 
inal starting position. Always remember to 
keep the hands well back of a line drawn 
through the shoulders. If you care to rise on 
the toes as the arms go up it will bring into play 
the lower muscles also. Ten to fifteen times is 
enough to start with. 



56 



PELMANISM 




MEMORY 



57 



WARMING UP 

Stand erect and raise your arms forward to 
the height of the shoulders} the hands are the 
width of the shoulders and palms are facing 
down. Shoulders are square, the head up and 
chest high (Fig. 67). Swing the arms sideward 
keeping them slightly higher than the shoul- 
ders j as the arms move turn the palms up. 
When your hands are at the side the palms are 
up and there is a noticeable feeling of strain on 
the upper back muscles. As you swing the arms 
sideward, raise the heels from the floor slightly 
and bend the knees just a little (Fig. 68). Now 
swing the arms back to the starting position, turn 
the palms down, lower the heels and straighten 
the knees. This is a very rapid, active move- 
ment and should be taken about twenty times in 
ten seconds. Forty times will be enough. 

HYGIENE EXERCISE— STARTING 
POSITION 

When you take up the Hygienic Exercise the 
starting position is given first and then the actual 
work is given to counts for simplicity. Stand 
with the feet eighteen inches apart, chest high, 
head up, and place the finger-tips alongside of 
the shoulder muscle on each side, elbows down 
and close to the sides of the body (Fig. 69). 
This position will be used once again in another 
lesson. 



MEMORY 



59 



HYGIENE EXERCISE— Continued 

Counts are 1 .... 2 .... 3 .... 4. 

Count 1 — Begin by bending forward. The 
hands at the same time are extended downward 
so that the finger tips touch the floor (Fig. 70). 
Make the effort to touch the floor without bend- 
ing the knees. 

Count 2 — Raise the body to the erect position 
and bring the finger tips to the shoulders again 
(Fig. 69). When doing the arm work raise the 
elbows as high as the head, the body being erect. 
Then with plenty of force lower the elbows to 
the sides and place the finger tips to the side of 
the shoulder. You are now in the starting po- 
sition. 

Count 3 — Extend the arms straight upward 
over the head, fingers extended as if touching 
the ceiling. Look up as you stretch the arms up 
(Fig. 71). This movement is also a rapid force- 
ful one. 

Count 4 — With a vigorous snap return the 
arms to the side of the shoulders. This exercise 
is not jerky but should be taken with plenty of 
action and to a rather fast regular count. Ten 
times will be plenty to start with. 

ROWING 

The imitative exercise for this lesson is best 
taken while sitting on the floor. It may seem 
somewhat difficult at first but should be repeated 
for a few mornings until the whole movement 



60 



PELMANISM 




MEMORY 



61 



ROWING— Continued 

becomes rhythmic and easy. If you have ever 
rowed a boat, this description will be unneces- 
sary. Just sit on the floor, or the bed if you 
wish, and go through the motions of rowing. 
However, for those who are not acquainted with 
the action of rowing, the thing to do is to sit 
down on the floor. Stretch your legs out in front 
of you with your feet together, body erect, and 
hands held out in front of you as if reaching for 
your feet. Imagine that you have an oar in your 
hands. Now stretch forward as far as you can 
go y you are reaching for the water (Fig. 72). 
Now suddenly snap your hands upward to about 
the level of the chest just as if you were catching 
the oar in the water j then with the hands, wrists 
and arms in a straight line gradually lean back 
as far as you can go without putting too much 
strain on your abdomen: imagine that you are 
pulling your oar through the water. When you 
are pretty well back, stop the body motion and 
begin to pull the hands up to the chest (Fig. 73). 
When they are almost touching the chest, sud- 
denly snapping the back of the hands upward 
and scooping the wrists downward along the 
abdomen, extend them toward the feet and let 
the body rise to its starting position. During the 
entire movement the back should be straight and 
the shoulders well back. Repeat five or six times 
at first. 



62 



PELMANISM 



SUGGESTION 

There is no safe and sane cure for obesity. 
Drugs, even under the care of a physician, are 
questionable. Cure-alls are positively danger- 
ous. Diet is somewhat risky unless properly 
prescribed. Exercise is only of value in pre- 
venting the accumulation of fat. It is of some 
help in reduction but a combination of diet and 
exercise will be the safest method of prevention. 
Consult your family physician for the proper 
form of diet, and then, using your exercises as 
prescribed there will be no question as to the 
safety of your methods. An ounce of preven- 
tion is worth a pound of cure, or better still, a 
sheaf of doctor's bills. 

Reference: 

Stand Straight. Door Edge. 

Rolling. 

Twisting. 

Chop Wood. 

Horn Pipe. 



MEMORY 



63 



XIV— APPENDIX 

CARD MEMORY (1) 

This exercise should not be regarded as an in- 
tegral part of the lesson. It is given here only 
for the use of those who are interested in this 
popular pastime. Those who are not interested 
in cards may omit it. 

There are many things that one wishes to re- 
member for only a short time, but which must 
be recalled with great accuracy. The ability to 
do this depends on two things $ trained observa- 
tion, and the power of undivided attention for 
the time being. You must see things exactly as 
they are and you must not allow yourself to 
think about anything else. Artificial aids to the 
memory are not of the slightest use. The mem- 
ory you have is strong enough for all purposes. 
All it needs is a little training. 

There are many instances in which the ability 
to retain facts for a temporary period is particu- 
larly useful, and in which the want of it is keenly 
felt by those who do not understand its secret. 
An excellent illustration of this type of memory 
and one which will doubtless appeal to a large 
class of people, is what is called "card memory," 
which refers to the ability to remember the cards 
played in a game. One constantly hears the re- 
mark: "I have no memory for cards," or; "I 
never can remember what is out." There should 
be no difficulty about this. The trouble is that 



64 



PELMANISM 



these people do not know how to go about cor- 
recting their deficiency. 

Let us suppose that the game is bridge, or 
auction, and you wish to improve your "card 
memory Do not wait until you are engaged in 
an actual game, because other things will then 
distract your attention. This attention, based 
on interest, is one of the things absolutely essen- 
tial to success, but it must be cultivated under 
favorable circumstances, until such time as it be- 
comes a pleasure, rather than a task. Bridge 
players learn the conventional bids, the proper 
leads, and all such things, in private lessons, be- 
fore they venture to cut into a rubber with 
strangers. Card memory should be acquired in 
the same way} but you do not need a teacher j 
you can train yourself. 

Let us see how we can apply the mind to this 
problem of remembering cards, so that it shall 
act in accordance with the principles already laid 
down for the recollection of other things. The 
technique of card memory is not different from 
that of any other memory. All depends on the 
proper exercise of comparative faculty, upon the 
ability to see difference and agreement, and upon 
the ability to classify. 

Take a pack of cards, shuffle thoroughly, and 
deal out two hands of thirteen each. Sort one of 
them into suits, and lay it face up on the table 
to represent the dummy. Now sort the other 



MEMORY 



65 



thirteen into suits and hold them in your hand as 
though you were the declarer. 

Count up the number of cards in each suit, one 
suit at a time, in order to see of which suit you 
have the greatest number. Let us suppose there 
are two hearts in the dummy and three in your 
hand. That would make five hearts. Four 
clubs in dummy and two in your hand. That 
would make it six clubs. Four diamonds in 
dummy and three in your hand. That would 
make seven diamonds. Three spades in dummy 
and five in your hand. You would have eight 
spades. 

Now turn all dummy's cards face downward, 
and see whether you can recollect how many 
there were of each suit in the combined hands, 
regarding your own as a guide. Then turn your 
own cards face down, and see if you can recall 
the manner in which each suit was divided be- 
tween the two hands. 

Pay more attention to the manner in which 
the suits are divided: the number in the dummy 
and the number you held. Unless you do this, 
your memory will be often at fault, because 
there has been no comparison. Practice in this 
way for a few minutes every day, for at least a 
week, or until you find yourself expert enough 
to recall the number of each suit in each hand 
after you have looked at them only once. 

When you can do this first exercise with ease, 
shuffle and deal two hands as before} but instead 



66 



PELMANISM 



of counting the suits, see what honors you have, 
and compare them with the honors that are out 
against you in each suit. Suppose dummy's 
hearts are ace and small} yours king, ten and 
small. Observe that the queen and jack are 
against you in hearts. They are in the hands of 
your opponents. Again ; dummy has the jack of 
clubs } you have no honor, so that ace, king, 
queen and ten are against you in clubs. Dummy 
has nothing in diamonds} you have king, ten} 
so that ace, queen, jack are against you. Dummy 
has king, jack of spades } you have ace and little 
ones} so that now only queen, ten are against you 
in spades. 

Now turn down dummy's cards and see 
whether you can recall the honors it held in the 
various suits, comparing with your own cards as 
a guide. Then turn down your own hand also, 
and see whether you can name all the honors in 
the two hands combined, and how they were 
divided. Never forget this element of the di- 
vision, both in the observation of the hands and 
in your recollection of them, because that is the 
comparison, and it is the comparison that fixes 
the attention and makes the impression which is 
so easy to recall. 

After training with these two types of mem- 
ory exercise for a little while, until you gain 
some confidence, you should be ready to try the 
combination of the two. Make a careful com- 
parison of dummy's cards with your own. Now 



MEMORY 



67 



you should be able to turn down dummy's cards 
and recall both'the number of each suit and the 
honors in it. You can then try turning down 
your own cards and recalling the whole hand. 
Having become fairly proficient in this, try the 
comparison, and then turn down both hands 
simultaneously, noting how much of the distri- 
bution of suits and honors you can recall. 

CARD MEMORY (2) 

The next exercise consists in analyzing the 
hand, with a view to understanding its possi- 
bilities. Shuffle and deal two hands of thirteen 
cards each, sort them, and place dummy's face 
up before you, holding the other thirteen in your 
hand. Suppose the declaration is "no trumps." 
It does not matter whether that is the right 
declaration or not, because that has nothing to do 
with training the memory. 

Now count up the tricks that are certain in the 
combined hands, and then look for those that are 
possible. 

Let us suppose that dummy has king and two 
small clubs and you have ace and one small club. 
It is manifestly impossible for you to make 
more than two tricks in that suit, no matter how 
you manage it. Dummy has three spades to 
the queen and you have three to the jack. You 
cannot be sure of a spade trick by any manner of 
play: but if the adversaries lead that suit, no 
matter how or when, you must make either 



68 



PELMANISM 



queen or jack. Dummy has four small hearts j 
you hold ace and one heart. There is nothing in 
that suit but one sure trick. Dummy has jack, 
ten, small in diamonds, while you hold six to 
the ace, queen. In that suit it is possible to make 
six tricks, if the king is on your right, by leading 
the high diamonds from the hand that is short 
in that suit, after getting in with the club king. 

Now turn dummy's cards down and see if 
you can recollect these possibilities. After you 
have tried the experiment a number of times, 
turn down your own cards, as well as dummy's, 
and see if you cannot recollect the possibilities of 
the combined hands, and how they should be 
played. 

You should soon be able to go over the whole 
ground after one good look at the two hands, 
noting the distribution of the suits, the division 
of the honors, and the sure and the possible 
tricks. 

After a little practice of this kind every day, 
if you are really interested in cards, you will be 
astonished at the improvement in your "card 
memory." When you sit down for the actual 
play at the card table, be sure to put your newly 
acquired powers to the test. Take your time. 
All good players study the combined hands care- 
fully before they play to the first trick. Do the 
same every time you get the declaration and play 
the dummy. This comparison of the two hands 
is the whole secret, because it demands close and 



MEMORY 



69 



accurate observation, combined with attention, 
which is the secret of all memory. 

After the hand is over, while the cards are 
dealing for the next hand, see if you cannot 
recollect the salient points in the hand you have 
just played. If you forget any particular suit, 
ask your partner what he had in dummy, and 
observe how you will instantly recall what you 
had yourself. 

When you are playing against the declaration, 
train yourself to remember dummy's cards and 
to compare the cards your partner leads or plays 
with what you see between your own hand and 
dummy. A simple example: At no-trump, your 
partner leads the deuce of hearts, showing only 
four in suit. Dummy has three hearts and you 
have two. Then the declarer must hold four. 

As you begin to feel more and more con- 
fidence in your "card memory," you will try 
your skill on such inferences as depend entirely 
on memory. Begin with the hands in which an 
opponent starts with a trump declaration, and 
say to yourself, "He has five of that suit at 
least." Count the dummy's trumps and your 
own, add five to the sum, and you will see that 
there is a limit to the number your partner can 
hold. If this limit is one, do not expect him to 
trump a suit twice. If it is two, and trumps have 
been led twice, do not expect him to trump at 
all. 



70 



PELMANISM 



By watching the suits in which one player 
fails, you can place the residue in the hand of 
the other, if it is not in dummy or your own 
cards. Note the number, and towards the end 
of almost every hand you will be able to recall 
the fact and say to yourself, for instance, "If 
the declarer has two clubs left and no spades, 
and the hearts are all gone, the rest of his hand 
is diamonds, and he must have three of them." 

Begin with the trump suit, if there is one. If 
not, begin with the suit you open, or the one 
with which your partner leads, and try to re- 
member every card in it, and by whom played. 
Then add to your practice a memory of the suit 
the declarer starts with, and finally you will be- 
gin to observe all the suits. 

There is no great difficulty about it: it all de- 
pends on whether you are able to compare what 
you actually know of the cards laid on the table 
by dummy or played to the tricks with what you 
do not know; or infer which is the remainder of 
the suit still to come. It is beside the mark to 
say that you have a good memory for some 
things, but not for cards. Your memory is alike 
for all things in proportion as you become in- 
terested in them, and train your memory in the 
right way. 



MEMORY 



71 



SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS 
AS TO PROGRESS SHEETS AND 
TEXT BOOKS 

1. Write your name and address legibly on 
every Progress Sheet. 

2. Your number should appear on all your 
communications, otherwise much unneces- 
sary labor devolves on the staff, 

3. Do not think that your answer must be 
confined always to the space beneath the 
question j use additional sheets when you 
desire. 

4. The Text-Books should be kept by the 
student for future reference. Remember 
you will want to use these attractive and 
durably bound books for years to come. 
They will be a library of practical value 
for you. 

5. From seven to ten days are usually suffi- 
cient for the mastery of a Text-Book and 
the completion of the Progress Sheet, but 
it is possible to do these things in a briefer 
period. Everything depends on the stu- 
dent's leisure. There is no fixed time for 
the return of Progress Sheets. 

PELMAN LESSON VIII 

Lesson VIII, on Concentration, carries you 
another step further in the acquisition of mental 
power. About fifty-six per cent, of university 
students, according to a recent survey, mentioned 
"lack of concentration" as a difficulty in study- 
ing. The study of the next lesson will enable 
you to develop the ability to concentrate. 



NOTES